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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy men. However, the association between treatment for ED and death or cardiovascular outcomes after a first myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown.In a Swedish nationwide cohort study all men <80 years of age without prior MI, or cardiac revascularisation, hospitalised for MI during 2007–2013 were included. Treatment for ED, defined as dispensed phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or alprostadil, was related to risk of death, MI, cardiac revascularisation or heart failure.Forty-three thousand one hundred and forty-five men with mean age 64 (±10) years were included, of whom 7.1% had ED medication dispensed during a mean 3.3 years (141 739 person-years) of follow-up. Men with, compared with those without treatment for ED, had a 33% lower mortality (adjusted HR 0.67 (95%CI 0.55 to 0.81)), and 40% lower risk of hospitalisation for heart failure (HR 0.60 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.82)). There was no association between treatment with alprostadil and mortality. The adjusted risk of death in men with 1, 2–5 and >5 dispensed prescriptions of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors was reduced by 34% (HR 0.66 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.15), 53% (HR 0.47 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.87) and 81% (HR 0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.45), respectively, when compared with alprostadil treatment.Treatment for ED after a first MI was associated with a reduced mortality and heart failure hospitalisation. Only men treated with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors had a reduced risk, which appeared to be dose-dependent.