Cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes morbidity and all-cause mortality among diverse chronic inflammatory disorders

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Abstract

Objectives

The present study aimed to assess the relationship between inflammatory disorders with cardiometabolic diseases and mortality within a community-based population.

Methods

The UK Biobank data were used to conduct two investigations: a cross-sectional study to estimate cardiometabolic risk and a prospective cohort study to estimate mortality risk. Binary regression analyses were used to model the association between coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, venous thromboembolism and peripheral artery disease diagnoses with seven inflammatory disorders (eg, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic vasculitis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC)). Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality.

Results

About 4% (n=19, 082) of the study population (n=5 02 641) were diagnosed with a chronic inflammatory disorder. The most common inflammatory disorder was psoriasis (n=6286), and the least common was SLE (n=654). SLE showed the strongest association with multiple (relative risk (RR) 6.36, 95% CI 4.37 to 9.25) risk of cardiometabolic diseases, followed by the RA (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.83), UC (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.51 to 1.89), AS (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.52), vasculitis (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.42–1.90) and psoriasis (RR 1.25, 95% 1.16 to 1.35) disorders. The magnitude of the association was higher among participants prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids drugs, with multiple cardiometabolic risk being greater within SLE (RR 12.35, 95% CI 7.18 to 21.24), followed by UC (RR 3.81, 95% CI 2.69 to 5.38), Crohn’s disease (RR 3.07, 95% CI 1.85 to 5.11), RA (RR 3.06, 95% CI 2.44 to 3.85), psoriasis (RR 2.36, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.95), AS (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.41) and vasculitis (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.79). Similar pattern was observed with respect to the cumulative cardiometabolic risk.

Conclusion

Inflammatory disorders are associated with heightened risk of cardiometabolic events, which may vary by anti-inflammatory therapy and duration. All-cause mortality was also higher among specific inflammatory disorders compared with the absence of inflammatory disorders.

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