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Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyC) is an abundant sarcomeric protein and novel highly specific marker of myocardial injury. Myocyte death characterises the transition from hypertrophy to replacement myocardial fibrosis in advanced aortic stenosis. We hypothesised that serum cMyC concentrations would be associated with cardiac structure and outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis.cMyC was measured in two cohorts in which serum had previously been prospectively collected: a mechanism cohort of patients with aortic stenosis (n=161) and healthy controls (n=46) who underwent cardiac MRI, and an outcome cohort with aortic stenosis (n=104) followed for a median of 11.3 years.In the mechanism cohort, cMyC concentration correlated with left ventricular mass (adjusted Î²=11.0 g/m2 per log unit increase in cMyC, P<0.001), fibrosis volume (adjusted Î²=8.0 g, P<0.001) and extracellular volume (adjusted Î²=1.3%, P=0.01) in patients with aortic stenosis but not in controls. In those with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) indicative of myocardial fibrosis, cMyC concentrations were higher (32 (21–56) ng/L vs 17 (12–24) ng/L without LGE, P<0.001). cMyC was unrelated to coronary calcium scores. Unadjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis in the outcome cohort showed greater all-cause mortality (HR 1.49 per unit increase in log cMyC, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.01, P=0.009).Serum cMyC concentration is associated with myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and an increased risk of mortality in aortic stenosis. The quantification of serum sarcomeric protein concentrations provides objective measures of disease severity and their clinical utility to monitor the progression of aortic stenosis merits further study.NCT1755936; Post-results.