Latvia: Nursing Reborn

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The literature of the 1920s and 1930s describes nursing education and practice of Latvia equal to any in the West of that time (Dunbar, 1937; Kushke, 1927) reference3, 7.Interviews with nurses of that era (Petersone, D., 1990 interview) describe the profession as being very progressive for the time and note that several Latvian nurses received the prestigious Florence Nightingale award in England during the 1930s. One nurse showed me the nursing theory model then used in Latvia which had the client in the center as the focus of care with nurses and other health care workers in concentric circles around the client (Kreismane, G., 1993 interview). Kreismane also stated that nurses of other European countries often came to observe the high level of nursing care.

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