Performance management consists of significantly more than periodic evaluation of performance. It is the art and science of dealing with employees in a manner intended to positively influence their thinking and behavior to achieve a desired level of performance. It is essential for the manager to always model positive behavior concerning performance; what one does or says as a manager always has an influence on others. The kinds of employee behavior most likely encountered relative to performance management efforts stem from resistance to change and lack of complete understanding of what is expected. Employee participation must be elicited whenever possible for performance improvement; as far as the inner working details of a specific job are concerned, there is no one who knows the job better than the person who does it everyday. For each task to be done, an employee needs to know what output is expected, how this output will be measured, and what standards are applied in assessing the output. Managing employee performance requires ongoing contact with each employee, regular feedback, and whatever coaching, counseling, and training are necessary to bring an employee back on track when a problem appears. Sustaining efficient and effective employee performance requires the manager's ongoing attention and involvement.