In this paper, we propose a location model for the optimal organization of transplant system. Instead of simulation approach, which is typical when facing many health care applications, our approach is distinctively based on a mathematical programming formulation of the relevant problem. In particular, we focus on the critical role of time in transplantation process as well as on a spatial distribution of transplant centers. The allocation of transplantable organs across regions with the objective of attaining regional equity in health care, is the aim of this paper. Our model differs from previous modeling approaches in that it considers the nationwide reorganization of the transplant system, identifying system barriers that may impair equity and efficiency. The demolition of these barriers may leads on a reduction of waiting lists and of wasted organs. We provide the basic structure and the properties of the model, and validate it on a real case study. The experimental validation of the model demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our proposal.