Prognostic significance of expression of cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor receptor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma


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Abstract

BackgroundThe association between expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the long-term outcomes in treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was studied.MethodsExpression of COX-2, VEGF, and EGFR by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was assessed in 128 patients with NPC. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were compared for different expression levels of each marker. Multivariate analysis was by the Cox regression model.ResultsMedian follow-up after radiation therapy ± chemotherapy was 116 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that COX-2, VEGF, EGFR, and clinical stage were all independent predictors for OS, DFS, locoregional control, and distant metastasis–free survival rates.ConclusionsHigh expression of COX-2, VEGF, and EGFR were independent adverse prognostic factors for long-term outcomes in nonmetastatic NPC independent of clinical stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013

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