We describe features of key additions to the existing pool of publicly accessible Helicobacter pylori genome sequences and sequences of Helicobacter pylori phages from April 2012 to March 2013. In addition, important studies involving H. pylori genomes, especially those pertaining to genomic diversity, disease outcome, H. pylori population structure and evolution are reviewed. High degree of homologous recombination contributes to increased diversity of H. pylori genomes. New methods of resolving H. pylori population structure to an ultrafine level led to the proposal of new subpopulations. As the magnitude of diversity in the H. pylori gene pool becomes more and more clear, geographic and demographic factors should be brought to analysis while identifying disease-specific biomarkers and defining new virulence mechanisms.