infection and disease outcome are mediated by a complex interplay between bacterial, host, and environmental factors. Over the past year, our understanding of this complex interplay has been improved by a variety of studies focusing on both host and bacterial factors. These include studies assessing novel virulence factors as well as those most frequently associated with severity of disease outcome including cagA and the cag pathogenicity island, and the vacuolating cytotoxin. Several studies have focused on regulation of virulence factors by environmental factors. In addition, mechanisms by which bacterial virulence factors influence the host response and disease, by inducing epigenetic changes, autophagy and altered oxidative stress have also been elucidated. This review highlights key findings in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection reported over the past year.