Over the last decades, it has become evident that chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori is achieved by colonizing an almost exclusive niche and hiding from many of the host's cellular immune defense mechanisms. Although recent years have seen progress in our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune response against H. pylori, it is still uncertain how to promote the development of immunity with the final goal of a successful vaccine. Research published in the last year revealed an intriguing mutual regulation of innate response mechanisms of mucosal epithelial cells by the host and H. pylori, respectively. A further focus was put on the interaction between H. pylori and dendritic cells, with some emphasis on the inflammasome and the resulting T-cell responses. Moreover, the function of microRNAs in macrophages and gastric MALT lymphoma development has been studied in more detail. Several novel antigens and adjuvants have been tested as vaccination strategies, primarily in mice. In this review, we present a concise summary of advances in the area of inflammation, immunity, and vaccines during the last twelve months.