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This review concerned the important pediatric studies published between April 2012 and March 2013. Symptomatology in Helicobacter pylori-positive children is nonspecific, except for those suffering from peptic ulcer diseases. Investigation of H. pylori status in children and adolescents with sideropenic anemia is recommended, and it is the aim of several studies worldwide. Associations of H. pylori with plasma ghrelin levels as well as the negative association of H. pylori with atopic disease were interesting objectives for several studies this year. Success rates of sequential therapy tended to be lower in recent studies than in previous trials, which probably reflects the increase in macrolide resistance. A beneficial effect of probiotics was reported although not all trials supported this result in children. Intrafamilial transmission and young age could be major risk factors associated with reinfection in children.