Music listening has been shown to reduce anxiety, stress, and patient tolerance of procedures. Music may also have beneficial effects on inflammatory biomarkers in intensive care and post-operative patients, but the quality of evidence is not clear.Objectives:
We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of music on inflammatory biomarkers in intensive care, and post-operative patients.Methods:
A comprehensive search of the literature was performed. After screening 1570 references, full text review of 26 studies was performed. Fourteen studies were selected for inclusion.Results:
Seven studies showed a significant decrease in cortisol levels, but the level of evidence was low. Three studies had low risk of methodological bias, while 11 studies had high risk of bias.Conclusions:
Music intervention may decrease cortisol levels, but other biomarkers remain unchanged. Given the low level of evidence, further research on music effects on inflammatory biomarkers is needed.