Effects of music intervention on inflammatory markers in critically ill and post-operative patients: A systematic review of the literature

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Background:Music listening has been shown to reduce anxiety, stress, and patient tolerance of procedures. Music may also have beneficial effects on inflammatory biomarkers in intensive care and post-operative patients, but the quality of evidence is not clear.Objectives:We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of music on inflammatory biomarkers in intensive care, and post-operative patients.Methods:A comprehensive search of the literature was performed. After screening 1570 references, full text review of 26 studies was performed. Fourteen studies were selected for inclusion.Results:Seven studies showed a significant decrease in cortisol levels, but the level of evidence was low. Three studies had low risk of methodological bias, while 11 studies had high risk of bias.Conclusions:Music intervention may decrease cortisol levels, but other biomarkers remain unchanged. Given the low level of evidence, further research on music effects on inflammatory biomarkers is needed.

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