Although haemophilia is an expensive disorder, no studies have estimated health care costs for Americans with haemophilia enrolled in Medicaid as distinct from those with employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). The objective of this study is to provide information on health care utilization and expenditures for publicly insured people with haemophilia in the United States in comparison with people with haemophilia who have ESI. Data from the MarketScan® Medicaid Multi-State, Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases were used for the period 2004−2008 to identify cases of haemophilia and to estimate medical expenditures during 2008. A total of 511 Medicaid-enrolled males with haemophilia were identified, 435 of whom were enrolled in Medicaid for at least 11 months during 2008. Most people with haemophilia qualified for Medicaid based on ‘disability’. Average Medicaid expenditures in 2008 were $142,987 [median, $46,737], similar to findings for people with ESI. Average costs for males with haemophilia A and an inhibitor were 3.6 times higher than those for individuals without an inhibitor. Average costs for 56 adult Medicaid enrollees with HCV or HIV infection were not statistically different from those for adults without the infection, but median costs were 1.6 times higher for those treated for blood-borne infections. Haemophilia treatment can lead to high costs for payers. Further research is needed to understand the effects of public health insurance on haemophilia care and expenditures, to evaluate treatment strategies and to implement strategies that may improve outcomes and reduce costs of care.