Pro- and anticoagulant factors facilitate thrombin generation and balance the haemostatic response to FEIBA® in prophylactic therapy

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Abstract

Introduction:

FEIBA® consists of zymogens and traces of activated forms of procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, anticoagulants protein C and TFPI, and small amounts of cofactors FV, FVIII and protein S, in a balanced ratio. As shown previously, FII-FXa complex plays a key role in FEIBA's mode of action (MoA).

Methods:

Thrombin generation (TG) was measured by spiking coagulation factors, cofactors and inhibitors to high titer FVIII inhibitor plasma, and in plasma samples from patients in a phase 3 clinical study evaluating the safety and efficacy of FEIBA prophylaxis in haemophilia A patients with inhibitors.

Results:

Increasing the FXa/FII ratio improved TG, while adding coagulation enzyme components had a negligible effect. Adding FX, FIX, and FVII increased the peak thrombin and decreased the lag time. The presence of FV and phospholipids led to faster TG, while protein C and protein S reduced the amount of peak thrombin. TFPI appeared to have no effect. Patients on prophylaxis with FEIBA® showed higher peak thrombin and AUC with elevated FII, FX, FIX, FVIIa, and protein C levels, and experienced significantly less bleeding episodes than those receiving on-demand treatment.

Conclusion:

These experiments showed that although the FII-FXa complex induced immediate thrombin formation on the activated platelet surface, other procoagulant components of FEIBA were necessary to achieve an optimal thrombin burst. The presence of the pro- and anti-coagulants in FEIBA provides a haemostatic balance, and is thus expected to prevent thrombotic events. Recent clinical data verified the postulated MoA of FEIBA in prophylaxis treatment.

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