Meta-analysis: outcomes of total knee arthroplasty in the haemophilia population

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Abstract

Introduction:

People with haemophilia (PWH) experience end stage joint disease as a result of repeated hemarthrosis, commonly leading to total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Aim:

The goal of this meta-analysis is to calculate expected outcomes for range of motion (ROM), functional mobility, and complication rates in PWH following TKA.

Methods:

Studies published between 1980 and 2015 were identified. Inclusion criteria: PWH having TKA, reporting Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score or Knee Society Score, knee ROM, and incidence of complications for more than 5 TKAs. Inhibitor status, haemophilia severity and HIV status were not criteria for inclusion or exclusion. Meta-analysis was performed using mean, standard deviation, or P-value data to create effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals for each variable.

Results:

Twenty studies met inclusion criteria; ten had sufficient data for meta-analyses. A total of 336 TKAs in 254 PWH were analysed with mean follow-up of 6.3 years. Statistically significant ROM improvements were found with 9.72° improvement of flexion contracture (−0.73 effect size (ES) (−0.91 to −0.56)), and 15.69°increase into flexion (0.63 ES (0.34–0.91)). Knee scores showed statistically significant improvements: clinically, 37.9 point increase (3.21 ES [1.79–4.63]) and functionally, 13.50 point increase (1.50 ES [0.80–2.21]). A 31.5% complication rate was calculated with 106 reported in 336 TKAs.

Conclusions:

TKA is an effective procedure for improving ROM and decreasing functional deficits resulting from haemophilic arthropathy. Knee score data shows TKA improves overall function. This study guides clinicians regarding outcome expectations post-TKA in PWH.

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