The current study has two aims: the first is to quantify the difference between radiation risks estimated with the use of organ or effective doses, particularly when planning pediatric and adult computed tomography (CT) examinations. The second aim is to determine the method of calculating organ doses and cancer risk using dose-length product (DLP) for typical routine CT examinations. In both cases, the radiation-induced cancer risks from medical CT examinations were evaluated as a function of gender and age. Lifetime attributable risk values from CT scanning were estimated with the use of ICRP (Publication 103) risk models and Russian national medical statistics data. For populations under the age of 50 y, the risk estimates based on organ doses usually are 30% higher than estimates based on effective doses. In older populations, the difference can be up to a factor of 2.5. The typical distributions of organ doses were defined for Chest Routine, Abdominal Routine, and Head Routine examinations. The distributions of organ doses were dependent on the anatomical region of scanning. The most exposed organs/tissues were thyroid, breast, esophagus, and lungs in cases of Chest Routine examination; liver, stomach, colon, ovaries, and bladder in cases of Abdominal Routine examination; and brain for Head Routine examinations. The conversion factors for calculation of typical organ doses or tissues at risk using DLP were determined. Lifetime attributable risk of cancer estimated with organ doses calculated from DLP was compared with the risk estimated on the basis of organ doses measured with the use of silicon photodiode dosimeters. The estimated difference in LAR is less than 29%.