This study investigated the association between residential environment and physical activity in the Czech Republic. A sample of 9950 adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Males were more likely than females to meet the guidelines for vigorous (40.8% vs. 26.0%) and moderate physical activity (51.2% vs. 39.3%) but were less likely to walk for 150 min a week (64.4% vs. 72.6%). Results showed that both males and females were more likely to be active in towns with less than 100000 residents. Current data are important for future comparisons as the Czech Republic develops.