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The current study draws on data from the 2007 and 2009 Citizenship Survey collected in England (n=17,572) to explore the role of social capital in building community resilience and health, using the bonding, bridging, and linking social capital framework of Szreter and Woolcock (2004). The results show that the indicators of the different types of social capital are only weakly interrelated, suggesting that they capture different aspects of the social environment. In line with the expectations, most indicators of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital were significantly associated with neighbourhood deprivation and self-reported health. In particular bonding and bridging social cohesion, civic participation, heterogeneous socio-economic relationships, and political efficacy and trust appeared important for community health after controlling for neighbourhood deprivation. However, no support was found for the hypothesis that the different aspects help buffer against the detrimental influences of neighbourhood deprivation.