Deprived and declining areas in Scotland have poorer health than other areas in the rest of Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Longitudinal Study, this paper examines whether differential migration over a one year period can explain these differences. Compared with migrants to and from deprived and declining areas, stable residents in those areas were generally older, less well educated and less affluent. Continued disproportionate loss of more affluent and better educated individuals could result in deprived and declining areas becoming even more deprived over time. Migrants appeared to be in better health; however, this finding was reversed on adjustment for age. It may be that while the relationship between migration and socio-economic status is immediately apparent, the relationship between migration and health could take longer to develop.