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Existing research on neighborhood environment and gestational weight gain (GWG) focuses on point-in-time measures of neighborhood context. This precludes understanding how long-term exposure to adverse neighborhood environments influences GWG. We estimated associations between average exposure to and trajectories of long-term neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and risk of inadequate or excessive GWG. Using data from 5690 full-term, singleton pregnancies in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimated associations between cumulative deprivation and GWG, overall and by race/ethnicity, controlling for individual and residential covariates. A one standard deviation unit (8-point) increase in neighborhood deprivation increased risk of inadequate GWG (Relative Risk (RR): 1.08; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00–1.16) for all women and excessive GWG (RR: 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21) for white women. Persistent low deprivation (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64–0.94) and upward mobility (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61–0.96), compared to persistent high deprivation, reduced risk of inadequate GWG. Persistent low deprivation also reduced risk of excessive GWG (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71–0.98). Long-term neighborhood deprivation contributes to patterns of GWG over women's life course.Chronic neighborhood deprivation is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG).Chronic neighborhood deprivation increases risk of inadequate GWG.Stable low deprivation and upward mobility trajectories lower risk of inadequate GWG.Results for excessive GWG were limited to white women and implied an increased risk.Understanding chronic neighborhood deprivation can help address adverse GWG outcomes.