To investigate the possible effects of middle and high school racial composition on later reporting of lifetime non-medical use of prescription painkillers (NMUPP) in young adulthood, and to explore whether there is evidence of variability by individual race/ethnicity in such effects.Methods:
Using data from Wave 1 (1994/5) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we categorized the sample's 52 middle schools and 80 high schools as majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, majority non-Hispanic black, or neither. We used two-level hierarchical modeling to explore associations between individual- and school-level race at Wave 1 and lifetime prescription painkiller misuse reported at Wave 4. We included a cross-level interaction between individual race and school racial composition to assess variability in school-level associations by race.Results:
Overall crude prevalence of lifetime NMUPP in majority white schools (17.9%) was over three times that of prevalence in majority black schools (4.8%), and also higher than prevalence in schools neither predominantly black nor predominantly white (12.4%). Lifetime misuse among blacks in majority white schools was more prevalent (5.2%) than among blacks in black schools (2.8%), as was misuse among whites in white schools (19.3%) compared to their white peers in black schools (15.7%). Two-level random intercept Poisson regression results suggest that attendance in a majority black secondary school lowered a participant's risk of lifetime NMUPP (compared to attending a majority white school: RR=0.66, p=0.03). Compared to blacks in black schools, blacks in white schools had twice the risk of prescription painkiller misuse (p=0.004) over a decade later, and whites in white schools had 5.5 times the risk (p=0.01). The risk ratio comparing whites in black schools to whites in white schools was not significant (RR: 1.30; p=0.37).Conclusions:
We found evidence of an effect of school racial composition on the risk of misusing prescription painkillers over a decade later, over and above individual race, with higher risk of misuse reported among participants who had attended white schools. Black participants who had attended predominantly white schools were, on average, twice as likely to report lifetime misuse of prescription painkillers compared to blacks who had attended black schools.