The total caloric and specific nutrient intakes of smokers who became abstinent were compared with those of a control group. Both groups were composed of volunteer inpatients housed in a research ward for 7 days. After smoking ad libitum for 3 days, the experimental group was required to abstain from tobacco for the next 4 days while the control group continued to smoke. Significant increases in total caloric intake and in grams of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and sucrose were observed in the experimental relative to the control group, whereas no significant differences were found in fructose intake. The increase in caloric intake was not specific to increases in snacking. Preliminary analyses showed gender differences in food intake as a result of tobacco abstinence.