Objective: The primary objective of this review was to summarize the literature regarding factors associated with self-efficacy for disease management (SEDM) in cross-sectional studies and the efficacy/effectiveness of psychosocial interventions that are designed to improve SEDM in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors. The secondary aim was to assess the quality of included studies. Method: We conducted a systematic review using PsycINFO and PubMed to identify studies for review. Eligible studies were conducted in AYA cancer survivors ages 15 to 39; included a measure of SEDM assessed as an outcome or in a cross-sectional analysis; and were published in a peer-reviewed, English-language journal. Results: From the 2,910 records screened, 7 cross-sectional studies and 4 intervention studies met criteria for inclusion. Eleven of the 12 SEDM measures in the studies were author-constructed, limiting the ability to draw conclusions across studies. All cross-sectional studies met at least 21 of 26 relevant quality assessment criteria, and intervention studies met between 4 and 11 of 14 criteria. Cross-sectional findings indicate that SEDM is positively associated with health-promoting behaviors and inversely related to physical and mental health problems. The intervention studies demonstrated that behavioral and educational interventions have the potential to increase SEDM. Conclusion: Directions for research include the need for validated measures of SEDM for AYA cancer survivors, as well as interventions that target both the health care team’s and the patient’s role in promoting SEDM.