Otosclerosis is a complex disease of the human otic capsule with highest incidence in adult Caucasians. So far, many possible etiological factors like genetics, HLA, autoimmunity, viruses, inflammation, and hormones have been investigated but still the development of the disease remains unclear. Currently, the surgical replacement of stapes (stapedotomy) remains the best possible treatment option. In this review, we analyze different etiological factors studied so far in otosclerosis pathophysiology and discuss most recent findings and possible new research pathways.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled