Effects of piroxicam on tissue distribution of sulfadimidine in West African Dwarf male and female goats

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Cases of Stevens–Johnson syndrome have been increasingly reported in Nigeria by individuals who consumed meat products of animals especially goats injected sulfonamides. Hence, tissue distribution and residues of intramuscular sulfadimidine were studied in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. Twenty goats divided into two groups of 10 each (five males; five females) weighing 10.4 ± 1.63 kg were administered intramuscular sulfadimidine (100 mg/kg body weight), and the second group was coadministered 5 mg/kg of piroxicam via right and left thigh muscle, respectively. Samples of the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, intestine, brain, and skeletal muscle were collected into sterile cellophane bags. Two untreated goats were killed and used for preparation of tissue standards. The tissue samples were stored frozen for analysis. High concentration of sulfadimidine residues was found in all the tissues of goats administered sulfadimidine as well as tissues of goats coadministered sulfadimidine/piroxicam for up to 30 days postdrug administration. Generally, residues of sulfadimidine were observed to be significantly higher than the acceptable limit (0.1 ppm). Hence, consumption of meats from WAD goats administered sulfadimidine may pose very high risk of Stevens–Johnson syndrome in sensitive humans. As such consumption of such meats should be avoided.

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