Metabolomics approach discriminates toxicity index of pyrazinamide and its metabolic products, pyrazinoic acid and 5-hydroxy pyrazinoic acid

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Abstract

Pyrazinamide (PYZ)—an essential component of primary drug regimen used for the treatment and management of multidrug resistant or latent tuberculosis—is well known for its hepatoxicity. However, the mechanism of PYZ-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown to researchers. Studies have shown that the drug is metabolized in the liver to pyrazinoic acid (PA) and 5-hydroxy pyrazinoic acid (5-OHPA) which individually may cause different degrees of hepatotoxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, PYZ, PA, and 5-OHPA were administered to albino Wistar rats orally (respectively, at 250, 125, and 125 mg kg−1 for 28 days). Compared to normal rats, PYZ and its metabolic products decreased the weights of dosed rats and induced liver injury and a status of oxidative stress as assessed by combined histopathological and biochemical analysis. Compared to normal controls, the biochemical and morphological changes were more aberrant in PA- and 5-OHPA-dosed rats with respect to those dosed with PYZ. Finally, the serum metabolic profiles of rats dosed with PYZ, PA, and 5-OHPA were measured and compared with those of normal control rats. With respect to normal control rats, the rats dosed with PYZ and 5-OHPA showed most aberrant metabolic perturbations in their sera as compared to those dosed with PA. Altogether, the study suggests that PYZ-induced hepatotoxicity might be associated with its metabolized products, where 5-OHPA contributes to a higher degree in its overall toxicity than PA.

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