Baclofen systemic toxicity: Experimental histopathological and biochemical study

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The present study was designed to highlight the toxic impact of baclofen on both biochemical and histopathological aspects in rats’ liver, gastric, lung, kidney, and brain tissues.


The study was performed on 30 healthy adult male albino rats divided into four groups with 5 rats in each control group, and 10 rats in either experimental groups (two experimental and two control groups). Five rats (negative control) were kept in a quite non-stressful environment, provided with food ad libitum and free access to water. Normal saline (1 ml) was given orally as placebo in the positive control group (n = 5). Experimental group III, baclofen acute toxicity group (10 rats): Each animal received a single dose of lethal dose (LD50) of baclofen orally by gavage. It equals 145 mg/kg body weight. The rats were observed for acute toxicity manifestations as well as for LD50 deaths. Group IV, (baclofen-dependent group, 10 rats): Each animal received baclofen (1/10th LD50) in gradually increasing doses for 1 month.


The levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, cardiac troponin I, and prothrombin time in both baclofen-treated groups showed significant elevation when compared to controls. There were brain, lung, gastric, hepatic, and renal histopathological changes in baclofen-treated rats whose severity varied between the two experimental groups.

Conclusion and recommendation:

Baclofen toxicity is an under diagnosed emergency. Physicians should consider baclofen toxicity in users having hepatorenal dysfunction, presenting with altered mental status, bradycardia, and hypotension.

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