CYP1A1 expression and organochlorine pesticides level in the etiology of bladder cancer in North Indian population

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Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The etiology of UBC is multifactorial and includes both exogenous and endogenous factors. Exogenous risk factors include exposure to heavy metals, aromatic amines, and environmental pollutants including pesticides such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Environmental factors alone are incapable of directly producing DNA damage and may require activation by phase I metabolizing enzymes like cytochrome P450 in order to become active carcinogen. The present study is designed to study CYP1A1 gene expression, OCP level in cases of UBC, as well as to explore the plausible role of gene–environment interaction in the etiology of UBC among North Indian population. A total of 60 cases with equal number of controls were enrolled under this study, the OCP levels were estimated using gas chromatography, CYP1A1 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fold change was calculated using the ΔΔCt method. In the present study, the levels of OCP were found to be significantly higher with the upregulation of CYP1A1 mRNA expression among UBC cases as compared to controls. While putting multiple linear regression, it has been observed that there is a significant interaction between the levels of OCPs and ΔCt value of CYP1A1 gene taken into account hematuria episodes as dependent variable. The study concludes that when there is predisposition of OCPs and upregulation of CYP1A1 gene, then the result will be an increment in hematuria episodes which indicates that gene–environment interaction plays a significant role in the causation of UBC among North Indian population.

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