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The present study aims to evaluate the potential genotoxic and associated factors among coal miners, divided by degree of exposure. Blood and buccal smears were collected from 158 workers, who actively participate in different activities in coal mining, and 48 individuals living in the same city but do not have participation in coal mining activities (control group). The workers were divided into three different groups, according to the level of contact with coal extraction. A questionnaire intended to identify factors associated with DNA damage was performed in participants. The results regarding oral mucosa micronucleus test showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) of the worker groups 1 and 2 in relation to the control group, where the group 1 has a higher degree of exposure to coal than group 2. For the lymphocyte micronucleus test and comet assay, there was no significant difference between the exposed groups and control group. There is an association between the outcome and the fact of living in the municipality of the mining company and the exposure to radiation in the last 12 months. Besides, the multivariate analysis showed an association of the tail moment with radiation exposure in the last 12 months. Thus, the findings of this study reveal genotoxicity in oral mucosa cells of workers exposed to coal and that workers with higher degree of contact with coal have a more pronounced response.