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The present study investigated the probable protective effect of vanillin (VLN) against kidney injury induced by cisplatin (CSN) and methotrexate (MTX) in rats. The rats received a single injection of either CSN (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or MTX (20 mg/kg, i.p.). VLN treatment (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was started 1 day before administration of the nephrotoxic agents and continued for 7 days. Both CSN and MTX significantly increased serum creatinine, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin and kidney tissue renal malondialdehyde, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-18, nuclear factor-κB p65, cytosolic cytochrome C, and caspase-3 and significantly decreased renal total antioxidant capacity and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in rats. VLN significantly ameliorated the changes of biochemical parameters induced by CSN and MTX. VLN also significantly reduced CSN- and MTX-induced histopathological injury and the expression of Fas ligand in rat kidneys. In conclusion, VLN significantly protected against CSN- and MTX-induced kidney injury in rats by inhibiting oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis.