Human serum albumin (HSA) is a soluble blood protein which binds to small molecules (such as drugs and toxins) and transfers them within the blood circulation. In this research, the interaction of diazinon, as a toxic organophosphate, with HSA was investigated. Various biophysical methods such as fluorescence, ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and molecular docking were utilized to characterize the binding properties of diazinon to HSA under physiological-like condition. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the absorption increased and the fluorescence intensity of HSA decreased regularly with regard to the gradual increases of the concentrations of diazinon. Due to the binding constant of (ka = 3.367 × 10+4 M−1), the α-helix structure for the first day and 35 days of incubation were obtained 66.09–55.4% and 59.99–46.48%, respectively, and their amounts in other secondary structures (β-sheet, β-anti, and random (r) coils) were increased. The molecular docking revealed a good binding site in HSA (Trp-214) for diazinon which was related to the considerable alterations in HSA secondary and tertiary structures. There is a close relationship between the secondary structure of protein and its biological activity and after 35 days of incubation, the high toxic concentrations of diazinon can make HSA to be partially unfolded and lose its structure.