The present study focused on the role of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) activation on renal oxidative damages, serum visfatin, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following the institutional animal ethics committee guidelines, Wistar rats were categorized into five groups: group 1: fed on a normal rat diet; group 2: HFD-induced obese rats (HFD for 8 weeks); group 3: HFD-fed rats treated with rosiglitazone (RSG; 3 mg/kg orally for 7 days); group 4: T2DM rats induced by HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (i.p. 35 mg/kg); group 5: T2DM rats treated with RSG (3 mg/kg orally for 7 days). Serum levels of AGEs and visfatin, renal damage, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Results showed that HFD-induced obesity and T2DM caused an elevated blood glucose, serum AGEs, visfatin, insulin, urea, creatinine, and tissue malondialdehyde, whereas a decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were observed. The PPAR-γ activation via agonist restored these changes. Our findings suggest that AGEs and visfatin possess an important role in the progression of renal oxidative stress, which can be reduced by the PPAR-γ agonist that impede deleterious effects of HFD and HFD-induced T2DM on renal damage.