The usage of image trigonometry in bone measurements


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Abstract

The entire musculo-skeletal system responds dynamically to stresses and strains applied to it. Restoring normal biomechanics contributes to the normal function that ensures that physiological stresses and strains are preserved. Appropriate preoperative planning is mandatory to restore normal biomechanics at reconstructive surgery. Effective preoperative planning depends on the ability to reproducibly make accurate measurements of lengths and angles from plain radiographs. Measurement has become an integral part of orthopaedics to define morphological abnormality, to plan for reconstruction and for comparative research. The most prevalent method of measurement is usually based on lines drawn on radiographs with no accurate reference to the actual geometry of the structures. This two-dimensional projection of an asymmetrical three-dimensional structure leads to inaccuracy and consequently to a compromise in the overall precision of many procedures. In addition it is also difficult to monitor the progression of disease as the exact relationship of the bones and joints to each other, and to prosthetics, cannot be accurately recorded. This paper presents a method of digitally measuring relevant bone parameters in a geometric manner in order to achieve accurate, repeatable measurements.

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