End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are more prone to infectious disease because of their immunocompromised status. However, the association between pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and ESRD remains not clear. The aim of our study is to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of PLA in ESRD patients. We recruited all incident ESRD patients from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database from 1998 to 2006. The incidence rate of PLA in ESRD patients was compared with that of a randomly selected non-ESRD control group matched for age, sex gender, Charlson comorbidity score, diabetes mellitus, and cirrhosis. Among the 57,761 incident dialysis patients, there were 538 cases of PLA. The incidence rate of PLA was 18.20 per 10,000 person-years in the ESRD cohort and 6.34 per 10,000 person-years in matched control cohort. The rate of PLA was significantly higher in the ESRD cohort (hazard ratio 3.63, 95% confidence interval 2.83–4.65, P < 0.001). The mortality rates of PLA were higher in the ESRD cohort than those in matched control cohort. Diabetes mellitus was an independent risk factor for mortality of PLA. Compared with non-ESRD patients, ESRD patients have a higher risk of PLA and poorer outcomes.