A conducting copolymer of 1,1′-ferrocenediacyl anilide and aniline (P(FcA-co-ANI)) was synthesized, which had a conjugated structure and ferrocene moieties in the main chain. The monomer and copolymer were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. A P(FcA-co-ANI)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite was synthesized by oxidation polymerization, using rGO as a substrate. The characteristic peaks of P(FcA-co-ANI) and rGO were observed in the FTIR spectrum of P(FcA-co-ANI)/rGO. The X-ray diffraction pattern of P(FcA-co-ANI)/rGO exhibited similar peaks to the pattern of P(FcA-co-ANI), except for the absence of the weak broad peak at 9.0° owing to rGO. The surface morphologies of the materials were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The interlayer distances of rGO and P(FcA-co-ANI)/rGO were 0.96 and 1.38 nm, respectively. The morphology of the copolymer was spherical, and it contained island structures covering the surface of the graphene layers. The electrochemical properties of the composite were measured by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The maximum specific capacitance of the composite was 722.5 F/g at 0.5 A/g. The diffusion resistance was very small, and the composites durability was sufficient for subjecting to prolonged oxidation and reduction.