The composites of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and short carbon fibers (SCFs) were produced with twin-screw extruder. ZnO nanoparticles were modified by γ-aminopropyl triethoxyl silane (APTES), and SCFs were wrapped with poly(ether sulfone) (PES). Morphological examination showed that the modified ZnO (m-ZnO) nanoparticles and wrapped SCFs (w-SCFs) were well dispersed in PEEK. The tribological behavior of PEEK composites under dry friction conditions was studied using a universal micro-tribotester. Exhaustive experimental results showed that the tribological behaviors, or the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites after the addition of m-ZnO nanoparticles and w-SCFs, were improved. The tribological properties of PEEK/ZnO/SCFs composites with 5.0 wt% functionalized ZnO and 10.0 wt% w-SCFs are the minimum.