Paxillin and carbonic anhydrase IX are prognostic markers in gallbladder squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas

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Abstract

Aims:

Squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) are rare subtypes of gallbladder cancers (GBCs). Clinical characteristics of SC/ASC have not been well documented, and no biological markers of GBC carcinogenesis, progression and prognosis are available.

Methods and results:

We measured paxillin and CAIX expression in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 adenocarcinomas (ACs) with immunohistochemistry and correlated these data with clinicopathological characteristics. Both paxillin expression and CAIX expression were associated significantly with larger tumours, a higher tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis and invasiveness of SC/ASC and AC. Univariate Kaplan–Meier analysis confirmed that paxillin and CAIX expression were associated closely with decreased overall survival in SC/ASC (both P < 0.001) and AC (both P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that paxillin expression and CAIX expression both independently predicted poor prognosis in SC/ASC and AC patients. We also noted correlations with survival and tumour differentiation, tumour size, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, tumour invasiveness and sample procurement methods.

Conclusions:

Paxillin expression and CAIX expression are both related to clinical/biological behaviour and poor prognosis of GBC.

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