Paxillin and carbonic anhydrase IX are prognostic markers in gallbladder squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas

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Squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) are rare subtypes of gallbladder cancers (GBCs). Clinical characteristics of SC/ASC have not been well documented, and no biological markers of GBC carcinogenesis, progression and prognosis are available.

Methods and results:

We measured paxillin and CAIX expression in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 adenocarcinomas (ACs) with immunohistochemistry and correlated these data with clinicopathological characteristics. Both paxillin expression and CAIX expression were associated significantly with larger tumours, a higher tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis and invasiveness of SC/ASC and AC. Univariate Kaplan–Meier analysis confirmed that paxillin and CAIX expression were associated closely with decreased overall survival in SC/ASC (both P < 0.001) and AC (both P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that paxillin expression and CAIX expression both independently predicted poor prognosis in SC/ASC and AC patients. We also noted correlations with survival and tumour differentiation, tumour size, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, tumour invasiveness and sample procurement methods.


Paxillin expression and CAIX expression are both related to clinical/biological behaviour and poor prognosis of GBC.

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