The discussion of pathology results is one of the important items in the multidisciplinary meeting. These results describe not only the adequacy of earlier treatments (neoadjuvant therapy, surgery), but guide subsequent treatment decisions by providing staging information and additional prognostic and predictive factors. In the era of next-generation sequencing, every so often the emphasis is put on the molecular background of tumours, but the information that can be retrieved from the resection specimen remains essential for optimal patient care. In the current review the different surgical approaches will be described, together with the relevant macroscopic evaluations. Microscopic features will be addressed, giving an overview that is aimed at optimal information exchange in the multidisciplinary meeting. Finally, special requirements for reporting local excisions and specimen after neoadjuvant therapy will be discussed.