Ameloblastic carcinoma (AMECA) is an odontogenic malignancy that combines the histological features of ameloblastoma and cytological atypia. Because of its rarity, it poses difficulties in diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-demographic data, histopathology, immunohistochemical features, treatment and outcomes of 17 cases.Methods and results:
Descriptive statistical analyses were used to portray the clinicopathological data collected, retrospectively. Log-rank tests were performed to determine new prognostic factors. Lesions were immunostained for Ki67, p16, p53, and cytokeratins (CKs), and compared with solid/multicystic ameloblastomas (n = 15). AMECA was mostly diagnosed at a late stage, affecting the posterior mandible of male patients in their fifth decade of life. Recurrence was diagnosed in nearly 90% of treated patients, and metastasis occurred in four patients. The mean number of Ki67-positive cells was 86.4 ± 66 per field. Tumours were focally positive for CK7, CK8, CK14, and CK18, and diffusely positive for CK19, p53, and p16. AMECA showed increased immunoexpression of CK18, CK19, p16, p53 and Ki67 as compared with benign cases.Conclusions:
Our study has contributed to the improved characterization of the epidemiology, prognostic markers, treatment options and outcomes of AMECA. Current criteria must be reviewed to simplify the diagnostic process for these neoplasms.