The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular non-germ cell tumours: a review and update from the International Society of Urological Pathology Testis Consultation Panel

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Abstract

The World Health Organization (WHO) released a new tumour classification for the genitourinary system in early 2016 after consensus by pathologists with expertise in these organs. It utilized the framework of the 2004 classification, and incorporated the most up-to-date information concerning these tumours. In testicular tumours, the majority of the changes occurred in the nomenclature and classification of germ cell tumours; however, several modifications were also made for non-germ cell tumours. Among sex cord-stromal tumours, sclerosing Sertoli cell tumour (SCT) is no longer recognized as a separate entity but as a morphological variant of SCT not otherwise specified (NOS), as CTNNB1 gene mutations have been noted in both neoplasms but not in the other forms of SCT. Similarly, the lipid cell variant is not separately classified, but is considered to be a morphological variant of SCT NOS. Large-cell calcifying SCT is recognized as a distinct entity that occurs either sporadically or in association with Carney complex, with the latter patients having a distinct germline PRKAR1A gene mutation. Intratubular large-cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia is also accepted as a separate entity linked with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subcategories of ‘mixed’ and ‘incompletely differentiated’ forms of sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours have been replaced by ‘mixed and unclassified sex cord-stromal tumours’. New entities introduced in the latest WHO revision include: myoid gonadal stromal tumour and ‘undifferentiated gonadal tissue’, a putative precursor lesion of gonadoblastoma, whereas juvenile xanthogranuloma and haemangioma are included in the miscellaneous category of tumours.

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