Bismuth-Based Gradient Heat-Flux Sensors in Thermal Experiment

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The possibility is examined of using gradient heat-flux sensors made on the basis of 0.9999 pure bismuth in both heat-metering problems and problems associated with the determination of temperature, shear friction stresses, volume flow rate of moving media, thermal characteristics of materials, and emissivity factor of surfaces. The dynamic characteristics of such sensors are determined. Measurement schemes are suggested which significantly extend the information content of experiments without sophistication of the equipment. Examples are given of using gradient sensors in experiments of different scales and technical levels.

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