Different methods are considered for measuring the temperature of conductors heated by an electric current pulse. Special attention is given to optical methods. Ways are discussed of designing blackbody models, including those developed recently for measuring the temperature under pulsed heating of small objects to 5000 K and above. New methods are described for high-speed measurement of the true surface temperature of conductors, namely, laser polarimetry and reflectometry. These methods do not require the use of blackbody model for measuring and investigating the dependence of spectral emissivity on the rate of heating and cooling. The possibility is analyzed of the emergence of specific error in measurements of the temperature of rapidly heated objects, which is due to deviation of the process from thermodynamic equilibrium and, as a result, to the shift of the registered melting temperature with respect to equilibrium.