Assessment of Activity of Daily Living Among Older Adult Patients in Home Healthcare and Skilled Nursing Facilities: An Integrative Review

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Abstract

Older adult's ability to self-manage illness is dependent on their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). Forty-five percent of those older than 65 years will have ongoing clinical needs after hospital discharge and require postacute care (PAC) services in settings such as home healthcare (HHC) and skilled nursing facilities (SNF). The Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 requires PAC providers to begin collecting and reporting ADL data to build a coordinated approach to payment and standardize patient assessments and quality measurement. The aim of this integrative review was to compare the methods of assessing ADLs in HHC to SNF. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was used to ensure results were reported systematically. A scientific literature search without date restriction within the PubMed and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases was conducted. Two independent investigators assessed study quality using the quality appraisal instrument developed by Kmet et al. Study quality was high. Of the 18,749 articles identified by the search, 8 met inclusion criteria and four tools were identified that are used to assess ADLs in SNF and HHC. Although SNF and HHC collect similar ADL information, the range of content covered, item definitions, scoring, and psychometrics are not comparable across settings.

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