Recent studies have suggested that chromosomal aberrations of the MYC gene locus indicate an unfavorable prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, there have been few reports on MYC translocation in Chinese patients. One hundred and six cases of DLBCLs were analyzed using interphase fluorescentin situhybridization. Immunophenotyping analysis (CD20, CD3, CD10, Bcl-6, Mum-1) was also performed. MYC translocation was identified in 13 (12.3%) out of 106 cases. All MYC+ DLBCLs showed a non-germinal center B-cell type. MYC+ DLBCLs showed significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival, with a median OS and progression-free survival time of 4.7 and 3.2 months, respectively (p< 0.001). Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazard model confirmed that MYC+ (for OS, Hazards ratio 5.254; 95% CI, 2.354–11.723,p< 0.001) was the strongest independent predictor. DLBCL with MYC translocation is a subgroup of non-germinal center B-cell DLBCL with poor outcome. This may be a clinical characteristic that is specific to Chinese patients. Because only a few patients received rituximab, its usefulness could not be assessed. Future studies with larger numbers of patients are required. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.