The present study was designed to assess the participation of estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the short-term facilitation of lordosis behavior in ovariectomized (ovx), estradiol (E2) primed rats. In experiment 1, dose response curves for PPT and DPN (ERα and ERβ agonists, respectively) facilitation of lordosis behavior (lordosis quotient and lordosis score) were established by infusing these agonists into the right lateral ventricle (icv) in female rats injected 40 h previously with 5 μg of E2 benzoate. PPT doses of 0.08 and 0.4 ng produced high lordosis quotients starting at 30 min and continuing at 120 and 240 min post-injection. DPN induced high levels of lordosis behavior at all times tested. However, the intensity of lordosis induced by both agonists was weak. In experiment 2, we tested the involvement of each ER in facilitation of lordosis by icv infusion of MPP (ERα-selective antagonist) or PHTPP (ERβ-selective antagonist) prior to infusion of 2 ng of free E2. Icv infusion of either MPP or PHTPP 30 min before free E2 significantly depressed E2 facilitation of lordosis. The results suggest that both forms of ER are involved in the short-latency facilitation of lordosis behavior in E2-primed rats.