Local excision of hilar cholangiocarcinomas results in long-term survival in only very few cases. Therefore, the combination of right or left liver resection and bile duct resection has been the standard treatment since about 1990. Five-year survival rates after curative resection could be improved to 30–40%. Recurrence is frequently seen locally, therefore more extended resection with adherence to the surgical principals of tumor resection, such as the “no-touch technique”, appears useful. Excellent results with 5-year survival rates up to 60% after curative resection can be achieved with right trisectionectomy together with principle en bloc hilar resection. Perioperative mortality is still high because of the small remaining liver volume.