The effects of β-endorphin under the conditions of naloxone hydrochloride blockade of opiate receptors, as well as the effects of the selective agonists of μ-and β-receptors DAGO and DADLE and the effects of melanocyte-potentiating factor (MPF), on the in vitro proliferative response of lymphocytes were studied. The dose-effect dependence indicated stimulating effects of β-endorphin, DAGO, and DADLE on the proliferative response in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The tetrapeptide MPF, which is the C-terminal sequence of β-endorphin, had almost no effect on the proliferative activity of lymphocytes. β-Endorphin, naloxone, and the μ-and δ-receptor selective agonists enhanced the proliferative response of lymphocytes in an unfractionated cell culture, whereas β-endorphin, naloxone, and DAGO suppressed the proliferative activity of lymphocytes in the mononuclear fraction purified of monocytes. In both cases, the naloxone blockade of opiate receptors enhanced rather than eliminated the β-endorphin effect.