After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:Learning objectives
• Assess the etiologies associated with catatonia in children and adolescentsLearning objectives
• Evaluate the differential diagnosis of pediatric catatoniaLearning objectives
• Interpret the literature regarding the treatment of children and adolescents with catatoniaObjective
Pediatric catatonia is associated with many medical and psychiatric conditions. Mortality is high, and proper treatment can be lifesaving. Catatonia is increasingly recognized in pediatric populations, in which about 20% of cases are related to underlying medical conditions. To minimize morbidity, clinicians must rule out underlying disorders while simultaneously managing symptoms and causes. In our review we discuss (1) recommendations to aid rapid decision making, both diagnostic and therapeutic, (2) emergent conditions and management, (3) disorders associated with pediatric catatonia, including developmental, acquired, idiopathic, and iatrogenic etiologies, (4) available treatments, and (5) medicolegal considerations.Methods
Initial PubMed search without date constraints using MeSH terms related to pediatric catatonia, with subsequent searches on pertinent subtopics using PubMed and Google Scholar.Results
Pediatric catatonia is a dangerous but treatable neuropsychiatric condition. Psychiatrists need to be aware of differential diagnoses and to be able determine appropriate treatment within a short time frame. With prompt diagnosis and treatment, outcomes can be optimized.Conclusion
Pediatric catatonia is underdiagnosed and requires rapid evaluation and management.