|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
This article traces the biological foundations essential to humanistic psychology. It presents, as an alternative to the biochemical emphasis in mainstream biology, the long-neglected holistic paradigm that developed out of the vitalist tradition in biology. After a review of the historical course of this alternative stream of scientific thought, this article focuses on Kurt Goldstein's organismic paradigm. Specifically, the distinction between Goldstein's and Maslow's concepts of self-actualization is analyzed, and Goldstein's elevation of the figure-ground dynamic to an ontological status is discussed.