Factor XI deficiency is an autosomal bleeding disorder of variable severity. It is particularly common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, the result of two founder mutations - E117X and F283L. Recent studies have shown the causative mutations of Factor XI deficiency, outside the Ashkenazi Jewish population, to be highly heterogeneous. We have studied 116 index cases, mostly from an ethnically diverse UK population, in order to better understand the spectrum of mutations responsible for factor XI deficiency. A total of 140 causative mutations of theF11gene were identified in 109 patients. Fifty-five (39.3%) of the mutations were one of three common mutations - E117X (Type II), F283L (Type III), or C128X. The remaining 85 (60.7%) mutations comprised at least 57 variants including 31 novel mutations and whole gene deletions. This large study reconfirms that, despite the presence of founder mutations in discrete populations, factor XI deficiency remains a highly heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.